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Sugary Drinks Linked to Premature Births

Sugary Drinks Linked to Premature Births

Women who drank sugary drinks and sodas during their pregnancies had higher rates of premature births

Soon-to-be mothers should take note of the newest research on sodas and sugary drinks: Reuters reports that soda consumption and premature births may be linked.

A study in Norway, which followed 60,000 pregnant women, found that women who drank soda while pregnant were 25 percent more likely to give birth early, compared to those who avoided soda altogether. Women who drank artificially sweetened beverages (ie: diet sodas) were 11 percent more likely to give birth early as well.

No one's quite sure what the link is; Dr. Michael Katz of the March of Dimes foundation (which works to help babies' health) said to Reuters that the study didn't indicate the risk of soda consumption. However, the study did note the strong correlation between soda consumption, pre-term labor, and overweight women. While most (not all) women seem to know to avoid alcohol while pregnant, soda seems to be another one to avoid.


Liver disease

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When we down one too many drinks loaded with sugar, we put undue stress on our livers. This punishment adds up—according to an article published through the Journal of Hepatology, increased consumption of sugar in the form of corn syrup has a direct link to rising rates of liver disease and failure.

Any sugar can end up causing this same damage to your liver. In a similar study retrieved from the journal Nutrients indicates that any sugar leads to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and when you take in a ton of this additive in the form of sports drinks, juice, or soda, you put yourself in immediate harm's way. If you crave a beverage more exciting with water, opt for a drink that doesn't have added sugar, like black coffee or plain tea to avoid this consequence while indulging a bit.


Can Too Many Soft Drinks Shorten Your Life?

Once again, soft drinks are getting linked with negative effects on your health.

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And this time, it’s not just the consequences on your waist line and scale. Instead, one study found that consuming any type of soft drink contributes to early death.

Let’s say that louder for the people in the back.

According to the study – drinking soda shortens your lifespan. Period.

The study looked at data on 451,743 people with an average age of 50. And the results showed that it didn’t matter whether the people were drinking soft drinks with real or artificially added sugar.

“The striking finding was in nearly half a million people, there was an increased risk of death from all causes, including heart disease, with people that consumed sugar-sweetened beverages, sodas and artificial sweeteners,” says Mark Hyman, MD, who did not take part in the study. Results showed that people who consumed two or more glasses a day of soft drinks, sugar-sweetened or artificially-sweetened beverages had an increased risk of death from cardiovascular or digestive diseases.

Nothing but bad news

Dr. Hyman says that diet soda is not a “free pass” to consume soda without the negatives.

When it comes to artificial sweeteners, other studies have shown they are linked to obesity, diabetes, increased hunger and can impact your metabolism.

“Diet drinks have artificial sweeteners in them that affect your brain chemistry, make you hungry and can slow your metabolism,” says Dr. Hyman. “They affect your gut micro biome in ways that are not good.”

Instead of soda, or sugar-sweetened drinks, Dr. Hyman recommends looking for a sparkling water or a water with a small amount of fresh fruit added to it. “The key message here is – soda, sugar-sweetened beverages and artificial sweeteners are not good for you,” says Dr. Hyman. “They contribute to death from all causes and heart disease, so we should not be consuming them.”

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Use healthy oils (like olive and canola oil) for cooking, on salad, and at the table. Limit butter. Avoid trans fat.

Drink water, tea, or coffee (with little or no sugar). Limit milk/dairy (1-2 servings/day) and juice (1 small glass/day). Avoid sugary drinks.

The more veggies &mdash and the greater the variety &mdash the better. Potatoes and French fries don’t count.

Eat plenty of fruits of all colors

Choose fish, poultry, beans, and nuts limit red meat and cheese avoid bacon, cold cuts, and other processed meats.

Eat a variety of whole grains (like whole-wheat bread, whole-grain pasta, and brown rice). Limit refined grains (like white rice and white bread).

Incorporate physical activity into your daily routine.

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Explore the downloadable guide with tips and strategies for healthy eating and healthy living.


50 Homemade Sodas

Homemade soda is just a mix of flavored syrup and seltzer or club soda. Adjust the ratio depending on how sweet you like it.

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How to Make Soda: For each drink, mix 2 to 4 tablespoons flavored syrup with 1 cup cold seltzer (unless otherwise instructed) add ice. Each recipe makes enough for 4 to 8 drinks.

1. Cherry-Vanilla Simmer 2 cups cherry juice, 1/2 cup sugar and 1 split, scraped vanilla bean (seeds and pod) over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes strain. Let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

2. Chocolate Simmer 1 cup each sugar and water with 1/2 cup unsweetened cocoa powder over medium heat, whisking occasionally, until syrupy, 6 minutes. Stir in 1/2 teaspoon vanilla and let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

3. Chocolate-Cherry Make Cherry-Vanilla syrup (No. 1) and Chocolate syrup (No. 2). For each drink, mix 2 tablespoons cherry syrup with 1 tablespoon chocolate syrup mix with seltzer.

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4. Rhubarb Simmer 3 cups chopped rhubarb, 1 1/2 cups water and 1 cup sugar over medium heat until broken down and syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes. Let cool completely, then strain through a cheesecloth-lined sieve, pressing on the solids. Mix with seltzer.

5. Rhubarb Shrub Make Rhubarb syrup (No. 4). Stir in 1 1/2 cups water, 1/2 cup lemon juice and 1/4 cup white vinegar. Cover refrigerate 2 days. Stir mix each 1/2 cup with 1/2 cup seltzer.

6. Cantaloupe Puree 4 cups cubed cantaloupe, 1/4 cup honey, the juice of 1 lemon and a pinch of salt strain, pressing on the solids. Mix with seltzer.

7. Currant Simmer 1 cup black or red currant jelly with 2 tablespoons water until smooth strain. Let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

8. Balsamic-Fig Simmer 1 cup fig preserves with 2 tablespoons each balsamic vinegar and water until smooth strain. Let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

9. Licorice Simmer 1 cup each sugar and water with 1 tablespoon anise seeds over medium heat until syrupy, 5 minutes strain. Let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

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Photo by: Karl Juengel ©Hearst Communications Inc., 2010

Karl Juengel, Hearst Communications Inc., 2010

10. Espresso-Licorice Simmer 2 cups water, 1 cup sugar, 1/2 cup brewed espresso and 1/4 teaspoon anise seeds over medium heat until syrupy, about 10 minutes strain. Let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

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11. Mulled Cider Simmer 2 cups apple cider, 3/4 cup sugar, 2 wide strips orange zest, 2 cinnamon sticks, 2 allspice berries and 1 clove over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes strain, then stir in the juice of 1 lemon. Let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

12. Chai Tea Steep 4 chai tea bags in 2 cups boiling water, 10 minutes. Simmer the tea with 1/2 cup sugar, 1/4 cup honey, 4 cardamom pods, 1 cinnamon stick and 1 star anise pod over medium heat until syrupy, 12 minutes strain. Let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

13. Arnold Palmer Steep 4 black tea bags in 2 cups boiling water, 10 minutes. Simmer the tea with 1 cup sugar and 1/2 cup lemon juice over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

14. Grapefruit-Chamomile Simmer 2 cups ruby red grapefruit juice and 1 cup sugar over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes let cool completely. Mix with chilled chamomile tea and seltzer.

15. Raspberry-Grapefruit Simmer 1 1/2 cups water, 1 cup sugar, 1 pint raspberries and 2 cinnamon sticks over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes strain, pressing on the solids. Let cool completely. Mix with grapefruit juice and seltzer.

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Blackberry-Lime Soda (No. 16)

16. Blackberry-Lime Simmer 1 cup water, 3/4 cup sugar and 1 pint blackberries over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes strain, pressing on the solids. Stir in the juice of 1 lime. Let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

17. Blackberry-Thyme Make Blackberry-Lime Soda (No. 16), simmering 8 thyme sprigs in the syrup.

18. Sour Cherry–Lime Simmer 1 1/2 cups frozen sour cherries, 1 cup water, 1/2 cup sugar and the zest of 1 lime (in wide strips) over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes strain, pressing on the solids. Let cool completely. Mix with lime juice and seltzer.

19. Kiwi-Lime Simmer 4 peeled, chopped kiwis, 1 1/2 cups water, 1 cup sugar and the zest of 1 lime (in wide strips) over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes strain. Let cool completely. Mix with lime juice and seltzer.

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20. Lemon-Lime Simmer 1 cup each sugar and water until the sugar dissolves let cool completely. Stir in 1/2 cup each lemon and lime juice. Mix with seltzer (use 1/2 cup syrup per drink).

21. Lemon Ginger Ale Simmer 2 cups water, 1 cup each sugar and finely chopped ginger, and the zest (in wide strips) and juice of 2 lemons over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes strain. Let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

22. Spiced Lemon Ginger Ale Make Lemon Ginger Ale (No. 21), using the zest and juice of only 1 lemon and simmering 6 cardamom pods, 1 teaspoon allspice berries and 1 cinnamon stick in the syrup.

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23. Apricot-Ginger Simmer 2 cups apricot nectar, 1 cup peeled, sliced ginger and 3/4 cup sugar over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes strain. Let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

24. Orange-Carrot-Ginger Simmer 1 cup each orange and carrot juice, 3/4 cup sugar, 1/2 cup chopped ginger and the zest of 2 oranges (in wide strips) over medium heat until syrupy, 25 minutes strain. Let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

25. Triple Citrus Simmer 1/2 cup each orange, grapefruit and lime juice with 1 cup sugar over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes strain. Let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

26. Orange-Fennel Simmer 2 cups orange juice, 3/4 cup sugar, the zest of 2 oranges (in wide strips) and 2 tablespoons crushed fennel seeds over medium heat until syrupy, 25 minutes. Let cool completely, then strain. Mix with seltzer.

27. Basil-Tangerine Simmer 2 cups tangerine juice, 3/4 cup sugar and 4 basil sprigs over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes. Let cool completely, then strain. Mix with seltzer.

28. Watermelon-Mint Simmer 1 cup each sugar, water and mint leaves until the sugar dissolves. Pour over an additional 1 cup mint leaves let cool completely, then strain. Mix with pureed watermelon and seltzer.

29. Juniper-Lingonberry Simmer 1 cup lingonberry preserves, 1/4 cup water and 1 tablespoon each crushed juniper berries and lemon juice until smooth strain. Let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

30. Cardamom-Pear Simmer 2 cups pear nectar, 3/4 cup sugar and 6 cardamom pods over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes strain. Let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

31. Cucumber-Vanilla Simmer 1 cup each sugar and water until the sugar dissolves. Add 1 sliced cucumber and 1/2 split, scraped vanilla bean (seeds and pod). Let cool completely, then strain. Mix with seltzer.

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32. Raspberry-Vanilla Simmer 2 cups water, 1 cup sugar, 1 pint raspberries and 2 teaspoons vanilla over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes strain, pressing on the solids. Let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

33. Blueberry-Maple Simmer 2 cups blueberry juice with 1/4 cup maple syrup over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes. Stir in 1 more tablespoon maple syrup and let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

34. Acai–Mixed Berry Simmer 2 cups acai juice, 1 cup mixed berries and 1 teaspoon vanilla over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes. Strain, pressing on the solids, then stir in the juice of 1 lemon and let cool completely. Mix with seltzer and sweeten with agave syrup.

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Raspberry-Peach Soda (No. 35)

35. Raspberry-Peach Simmer 2 cups peach nectar, 3/4 cup sugar and 1 pint raspberries over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes. Let cool completely, then strain, pressing on the solids. Mix with seltzer.

36. Strawberry-Yuzu Simmer 2 cups diced strawberries with 1 cup each sugar and water over medium heat until syrupy, 12 minutes strain, pressing on the solids. Let cool completely. Mix with yuzu juice and seltzer.

37. Strawberry-Mango Simmer 2 cups mango nectar with 1/2 cup sugar over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes let cool completely. Stir in 2 cups pureed strawberries. Mix with seltzer.

38. Pomegranate-Rose Simmer 1 cup pomegranate juice, 3/4 cup sugar and 1/2 cup each water and dried rose petals over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes strain. Let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

39. Grape-Almond Simmer 2 cups Concord grape juice with 1/2 cup sugar over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes. Stir in the juice of 1/2 lemon and 1 teaspoon almond extract let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

40. Tropical Fruit Punch Simmer 1 cup each cherry juice, orange juice, pineapple juice and chopped strawberries with 3/4 cup sugar over medium heat until syrupy, 18 minutes strain, pressing on the solids. Stir in the juice of 1 lime let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

41. Lychee Simmer 1 cup canned lychees and 1/2 cup syrup from the can, 1 cup sugar and 1/2 cup water over medium heat until the sugar dissolves strain. Let cool completely. Mix with coconut water and seltzer.

42. Pina Colada Simmer 1 1/2 cups pineapple juice with 1/2 cup each sugar and coconut milk over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes let cool completely. Stir in 1/2 teaspoon rum extract and 1/4 teaspoon coconut extract. Mix with seltzer.

43. Guava-Pineapple Simmer 1 cup guava jelly with 2 tablespoons water until smooth let cool completely. Mix with pineapple juice and seltzer.

44. Passion Fruit Simmer 2 cups passion fruit juice and 1/2 cup sugar over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes let cool completely. Mix with coconut water and seltzer.

45. Cranberry Simmer 2 cups cranberry juice with 1/2 cup sugar over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

46. Cranberry-Jalapeno Make Cranberry soda (No. 45), adding 2 chopped seeded jalapenos during the last 5 minutes strain.

47. Spicy Blood Orange Simmer 1 cup hot pepper jelly with 1/4 cup water until smooth strain. Let cool completely. Mix with blood orange juice and seltzer.

48. Bloody Mary Simmer 2 cups tomato juice, 1/3 cup sugar, the zest of 1 lemon (in wide strips) and 1/2 teaspoon celery seeds over medium heat until syrupy, 10 minutes strain. Let cool completely. Stir in the juice of 1 lemon and a dash each of Worcestershire sauce and hot sauce. Mix with seltzer.

49. Celery Simmer 1 1/2 cups water, 1 cup sugar and 1 teaspoon celery seeds over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes strain. Let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

50. Black Pepper–Prune Simmer 2 cups prune juice, 3/4 cup sugar, 1 cinnamon stick and 1 teaspoon cracked pepper over medium heat until syrupy, 15 to 20 minutes strain. Let cool completely. Mix with seltzer.

  • Seltzer: Water with added carbon dioxide — it's what you get when you use a home soda maker.
  • Club soda: Water with added carbon dioxide plus small amounts of mineral salts — you might be able to detect a subtle salty flavor.
  • Sparkling mineral water: Water with naturally occurring mineral content and carbonation — it's more expensive than other sparkling waters and has a distinct mineral flavor, so it's not ideal for mixing.
  • Tonic: Water with added bubbles and quinine, a bitter alkaloid — the flavor might overpower homemade sodas. Unlike other sparkling waters, tonic has calories (124 per 12-ounce serving).

Here's how to make your drinks super fizzy:

  • Choose glass bottles. Club soda or seltzer bottled in glass is often fizzier. Plastic bottles and aluminum cans can leak carbon dioxide.
  • Use cold sparkling water. Carbonated water tastes flatter at room temperature. Chill your sparkling water, or if you're using a soda maker, keep bottles filled with flat water in the fridge and carbonate to order.
  • Serve drinks in a narrow glass. Champagne is served in flutes for a reason — there's less surface area for bubbles to escape. Same goes for soda.

New York–Style Egg Cream: There are no eggs or cream in this soda-fountain favorite — just milk, seltzer and flavored syrup (usually chocolate). Make one with Chocolate-Cherry Soda (No. 3).

Italian Cream Soda: This is soda with a splash of heavy cream or half-and-half. You won't find it in Italy — it was invented by Italian-Americans. Try it with Cherry-Vanilla Soda (No. 1).

"Cow" Floats: The classic is a brown cow: root beer with chocolate ice cream or cola with vanilla ice cream, often with chocolate syrup. You can make a purple cow by adding vanilla ice cream to Grape-Almond Soda (No. 39).


Sugar Water Eases Vaccine Pain for Babies

May 27, 2010 -- We know that a spoonful of sugar helps the medicine go down, and now new research shows it may also take some of the ouch out of your infant's routine shots.

The findings, which appear in the Archives of Disease in Childhood, show that infants up to 1 year of age shed fewer tears and may feel less pain when they drink a sweet-tasting sugary solution (sucrose or glucose water) before their routine immunization, when compared with infants who tasted water or received no treatment.

"Sucrose or glucose along with other recommended physical or psychological pain reduction strategies such as non-nutritive sucking (NNS), breastfeeding or effective means of distraction should be consistently utilized for immunization," conclude the researchers, who were led by Denise Harrison of the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto.

NNS typically refers to the use of pacifiers or sucking on thumbs or other fingers. The researchers can't recommend precise doses or concentrations of sugar water at this time, but they definitely feel this practice is worth a shot. "Health care professionals should consider using sucrose or glucose before and during immunization," they conclude.

For children getting multiple shots, they suggest giving the sugar water before the first shot and throughout the procedure so the pain-relieving effects last.

Researchers analyzed 14 studies of infants up to 1 year of age who received sugar water (sucrose or glucose), plain water, or nothing before getting their routine immunizations. The studies comprised data on 1,674 shots. The study found that infants given sugar water cried less than infants who received water or nothing in 13 of the 14 studies reviewed. The effects tended to wane as infants aged.

"This is something we do all the time before a circumcision in a newborn," says Laura Wilwerding, MD, a clinical associate professor of pediatrics at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha.

"We dip a gloved finger in sucrose water because it is pretty well-accepted that sucrose or glucose water work as anesthesia," she says. "It is good news that this helps with shots as infants grow older."

Sugary solutions can be used in other situations as well. "It can also be a useful strategy to get kids to settle down for stitches, especially if they are at an age where they are still sucking on a pacifier," she suggests. Parents can dip the pacifier in the sweet solution, she explains.

Sources

Harrison, D. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 2010 vol 95: pp 406-413.

Laura Wilwerding, MD, clinical associate professor of pediatrics, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha.


SUBJECTS AND METHODS

Population and study design

This study was based on data from the Danish National Birth Cohort, the structure of which has been described in detail elsewhere ( 23). In brief, 91,827 pregnant women from all over Denmark were recruited from January 1996 to October 2002. All pregnant women who were living in Denmark and were fluent in Danish were eligible for recruitment. Women were enrolled by filling out a recruitment form at the first antenatal visit to the general practitioner at ≈6–10 wk gestation. Data were collected via 4 computer-assisted telephone interviews, a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and registry linkages. During the study period, ≈35% of all deliveries in Denmark were recruited into the cohort ( 23). To investigate the effect of this recruitment rate, Nohr et al ( 24) analyzed 49,751 women from a source population that included 15,373 cohort participants and showed no indication of attrition bias with respect to exposure-risk associations such as in vitro fertilization and preterm delivery as well as maternal smoking and fetal growth.

Dietary assessment

Dietary information was collected at ≈25 wk gestation through a detailed FFQ that covered intakes during the previous 4 wk gestation ( 25). Individual food items were quantified into grams per day by using assumptions on standard portion sizes, and intakes of total energy and individual nutrients were quantified by using food-composition tables ( 26). The FFQ contained a number of questions on beverages such as “How many servings of the following beverages have you consumed during the last month?” Response categories ranged from never to ≥8 servings/d. The 4 beverage items used on our analyses were as follows: carbonated soft drinks/cola (sugar sweetened), carbonated soft drinks/cola (sugar-free, light), noncarbonated soft drinks (sugar sweetened), and noncarbonated soft drinks (sugar-free, light). In the context of soft drinks, it was understood that the words sugar-free and light referred to products that contained artificial sweeteners.

The FFQ was validated against dietary records and biomarkers of particular nutrients ( 27), but not specifically with respect to soft drink consumption. However, we also asked 103 women to complete the FFQ a second time at 33–35 wk gestation. For each soft drink variable, the observed Spearman's correlation coefficient was ≈0.7 for the frequency of intake reported in the FFQ in weeks 25 and 35 of gestation.

Cohort attrition

A total of 91,827 pregnant women registered into the cohort. Women were allowed to enter the study repeatedly during the study period, which resulted in 101,042 pregnancies in total. To avoid the use of multiple dependent observations, our analyses were restricted to the first pregnancy enrollment (n = 91,827) of which 62,374 women filled out the FFQ. The final data set consisted of 59,334 women when we further restricted our analyses to singleton pregnancies (n = 61,409) and excluded women who did not answer the questions on soft drinks (≈3%).

The women who entered our final data set did not differ markedly from those women who did not enter the final data set with respect to the following variables: maternal age (29.3 compared with 29.0 y, respectively), prepregnancy body mass index (BMI in kg/m 2 ) (23.7 compared with 23.5, respectively), smoking during pregnancy (28.6% compared with 25.1%, respectively), and rate of preterm delivery (<37 wk: 5.0% compared with 4.6%, respectively), whereas the number of nulliparous women (37.1% compared with 53.0%, respectively) differed markedly.

Outcome assessment

Dates of birth of subjects were extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System. Gestational age (in d) was assessed from the last menstrual period on the basis of information recorded in the recruitment form (week 6) and in the first telephone interview (week 12). If this estimate was uncertain because of irregular or abnormally long (>32 d) or short (<24 d) menstrual cycles, gestational age was based on information on the expected date of delivery provided by the women in the second telephone interview (week 30), which was most often based on ultrasound scanning. If this information was missing, we used the gestational age assessed at delivery by the midwife and reported to the Medical Birth Registry. For our estimates of gestational age, 43%, 56%, and 1% were based on information on the last menstrual period, information from the second telephone interview, and the Medical Birth Registry, respectively.

Information from the Medical Birth Registry was also used to distinguish between spontaneous and medically induced deliveries. Medically induced deliveries were defined from information about either induction or cesarean section before the onset of labor ( 28).

Selection of covariates

A priori, we identified and included as covariates a set of 7 nondietary factors that are well-recognized determinants of preterm delivery: maternal age (20, 20–24, 25–29, 30–34, 35–39, and ≥40 y 0% missing), height (<160, 160–169, 169–179, and >179 cm 4.3% missing), prepregnancy BMI (≤18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25–29.9, 30–34.9, and ≥35 5.8% missing), cohabitant status (single compared with cohabitant 4.3% missing), parity (0, 1, 2, ≥3 4.3% missing), smoking during pregnancy (never, occasional smokers, daily smokers of <15 cigarettes/d, and daily smokers of ≥15 cigarettes/d 0.7% missing), and familial sociooccupational status (6 occupational categories as follows: high occupational status, intermediate occupational status, skilled workers, unskilled workers, students, and not working 4.5% missing). These covariates were extracted from the 2 prenatal telephone interviews conducted around 12 and 30 wk gestation. Because of the relatively low frequency of missing values for these covariates (range: 0–5.8%), missing values were assigned to a missing category for each covariate. In addition, we also included the mother’s total energy intake (quintiles 0% missing) as a covariate as it is generally important to distinguish between the separate effects of food and energy intakes ( 29).

Statistical analyses

We used preterm delivery (<37 wk) as our primary outcome measure, whereas late preterm (34 ≤ wk < 37), moderately preterm (32 ≤ wk < 34), and early preterm delivery (<32 wk) were used as secondary outcomes. In our primary analyses we investigated the association between sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and preterm delivery. To establish a detailed dose-response relation, soft drink intake was categorized as follows: never, <1 soft drink/wk, 1–6 soft drinks/wk, 1 soft drink/d, 2–3 soft drinks/d, and ≥4 soft drinks/d.

In our secondary analyses we investigated the stability of our finding for the carbonated-soft drinks with respect to late, moderately, and early preterm delivery and prepregnancy weight categorized as underweight (BMI <18.5), normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI <25), or overweight (BMI ≥25).We also examined spontaneous and medically induced preterm births separately. Because relatively few women reported daily consumption of carbonated soft drinks, the 3 highest-intake categories were merged into one category (≥1/d) in our secondary analyses to reach a sufficient number of cases in each strata.

Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used for estimating the association between intakes of soft drinks and preterm delivery. We used the chi-square-test (type III) as a measure of an association where the intake of soft drinks was included as a continuous term in the regression model (trend test). All analyses were performed with SAS version 9.1 software (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC).


It could lead to type 2 diabetes over time.

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"Eating too much sugar may lead to insulin resistance and eventually type 2 diabetes," says Krishna Kaliannan, CEO and Founder of Catalina Crunch. "For example, in the below meta-analysis, the authors pooled the results of eight separate studies. Each of these eight studies compared people who drank a lot of sugary drinks (like soda) versus people who didn't drink a lot of sugary drinks. The authors of the meta-analysis found that people who drank more sugary drinks were more likely to have type 2 diabetes."

A simple solution? Don't overdo it on the sugar and portion our your sweets, like indulging in one of these 76 Best Dessert Recipes for Weight Loss.


Consuming sugary drinks, how much is too much?

"High sugary drinks consumption is a risk factor for obesity and weight gain," she said. "Obesity is in itself a risk factor for cancer," she added.

How many sugary drinks can we have and still feel safe? Touvier thinks the maximum should be one glass a day.

The research had 101,257 French subjects, all healthy adults, with an average age of 42. Of those, 79 percent are women and 21 percent are men. The participants filled out two questionnaires and were monitored over nine years. Their habits when it comes to consuming sugary drinks, but also their diet, were analyzed by the researchers.

2,193 cases of cancer were then reported by the study participants. The disease was diagnosed at an average age of 59 years. Of these, 693 were breast cancer cases, 291 prostate cancer cases, and 166 colorectal cancer cases.

It is important to note that not only processed beverages are bad for your health, but also the freshly squeezed juices you make at home.