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Women Care More About Weight Gain in College Than Men Do

Women Care More About Weight Gain in College Than Men Do

The “freshman 15”: easy to gain but tough to get rid of. It’s the phrase that no college freshman ever wants to hear — especially women, says a study. Comparing women’s and men’s attitudes about eating, depression, and body dissatisfaction after gaining weight in college, researchers found that women are much more affected mentally, according to Health.

Following incoming freshman through four years, researchers tracked their weights as well as how their attitudes changed as their weights did.

“As women gained weight, their eating attitudes worsened and body dissatisfaction rose,” says Laura Girz, a University of Toronto graduate student and lead author of the study.

Men who gained weight maintained the same attitudes about eating and well-being as men who didn’t gain weight. Heidi Wengreen, associate professor of nutrition, dietetics and nutritional sciences at Utah State University who was not involved in the study, says it’s not surprising because many men in college want to gain muscle mass and so are not too concerned.


What Do Men Need From Women? 5 Insights

How many times have you felt upset by something your male partner said or didn&rsquot say, did or didn&rsquot do and then found yourself concluding that whatever the issue it results from his very maleness, from the sheer fact that he is a man, that he simply &lsquocan&rsquot help it.&rsquo Certain notes are sounded again and again when women talk about trouble with their men: &ldquoBut you know, that&rsquos how men are&rdquo or &ldquoHe&rsquos a man after all, it's not his fault&rdquo or &ldquoMEN!&rdquo Typically the women listening nod and laugh, bursting with agreement. These and other platitudes are recited as a way to minimize their distress and frustration. However, this tendency to dismiss males as genetically deficient reinforces for them the idea that it is not safe to fully be themselves with their female partners.

It is important to note research consistently demonstrates that men and women are more alike than different, share an almost identical brain structure, similar needs for achievement and connection, and generally want the same things out of life. The differences are in nuance and, although important, should not be used to relegate men to some far removed, distant space in the universe that normal people, i.e. women, find inhospitable.

Men are socialized beginning in boyhood to conform to what the culture values as masculine. This includes being in control of one's emotions, winning at all costs and not showing vulnerability. Men who do not wholeheartedly conform are often stigmatized socially and may be viewed by others as &lsquofeminine&rsquo in some vague way. Men who display vulnerability may be called a &ldquosissy&rdquo or, currently in fashion, a &ldquovagina.&rdquo Research suggests that men who feel they must rigidly conform to masculine gender norms are more likely to suppress emotions that make them feel vulnerable. These are the very emotions required for emotional intimacy with a romantic partner.

As women we often reinforce the same gender conditioning that pushes men away. A more effective approach is to buffer this harsh cultural reality by keeping these five points in mind.

1. He deeply wants you to like him and to love him for himself and not just what he can do for you.

Male socialization teaches that their value is in their agency&mdashthat is in their ability to act, take charge, control, win, achieve&mdashlest he receive the &lsquosissy&rsquo scorn. Do not let this superficial part of him mislead you. Underneath this conditioning is a child who, just like you, wants to feel loved for who he is. He desires someone who can be okay with him even when he is not winning, producing or &lsquoon top.&rsquo He may not be able to tell you this, so when he is feeling &lsquonot good enough&rsquo you may not even know it. Unlike women, men have more difficulty talking about their &lsquoweaker&rsquo emotions.&rsquo If you keep this key in mind, you may notice other important things about him. How funny he is? How nice it is to spend time with him? How do you like talking with him about your day? Open the dialogue up to his essence, not merely his prowess.

2. He wants you to like yourself.

If you are using him to feel okay about yourself, it will never be enough and you will constantly be in search of the next boost. He experiences this as dependency and it can become burdensome so that he is not free to be his authentic self. In addition, there is typically a correlation between how much women are unaccepting of themselves and their tendency to criticize and hyper-control the man in their life. This is because people tend to project characteristics onto others that reflect themselves. In other words, if you are unhappy with yourself, you may be overly critical of him. As a rule of thumb, the feedback to your significant other should be 75 percent positive, 25 percent negative. If the ratio is reversed, you are triggering Kryptonite for a lot of men and it makes them feel endlessly nagged and criticized. When this is the case, they acquire a sense that they can &lsquonever get it right.&rsquo This, invariably, leads them to tune out and avoid the woman in their life.

3. He wants you to believe in his ability to communicate.

News flash: It turns out all that propaganda about men not being able to communicate is wrong, men actually can communicate. &ldquoMen are from Mars,&rdquo &ldquoMen are Neanderthals,&rdquo these phrases reinforce the stereotype that men cannot talk about their feeling or motives with more than a fourth-grade point of view. And, these descriptors further reinforce male adoption of the idea that if they do communicate more vulnerable thoughts or emotions, they may be stigmatized as too soft. If you find yourself saying things like this, stop and give him a chance. Yes, women are more verbal&mdashthey typically talk about their feelings more quickly and succinctly than men. But men do know what they think and feel. Instead of shaming him, when you can tell he is trying to express something vulnerable take him seriously, ask questions. Be sure to thank him for trying to talk to you on this level. Trust me, if you do this, he will talk more and you will see that under his exterior of manliness is a man who speaks articulately and has feelings very similar to you.

4. He wants you to be playful.

Not to generalize because all women are different, but many are masters at organization, multitasking and &lsquotaking care of business.&rsquo It can be a little too easy when around your partner to talk mostly about the agenda for this day or the next day, what needs to be done etc. He wants to see you let go of control and be spontaneous, playful and in the moment with him. His love has an opportunity to deepen when you engage him without agendas and controls. He feels as if he is a real person who you see and hear and not just a piece you move on your chessboard of tasks.

5. He wants you to know that boys do cry.

Deep down, just like you, men are vulnerable beings. Do not punish or minimize if you see even a hint of sadness let him have his moment. He may or may not cry, and certainly men are typically socialized to cry less than women. However, it is important for his negative emotions to be validated and heard. Boys and men are given so much shame in our culture for being vulnerable that they are often left with only one choice to vent negative feelings&mdashanger. Offer him one place in the world where he can unconditionally bring his full self to the table and where you don&rsquot judge. Don&rsquot talk him out of his fears or upset, offer compassion and understanding&mdashtwo important qualities that men do not get enough of throughout childhood and adulthood.

When you find yourself trying to understand something he says that you find unacceptable, stop, breathe and remember deep down most men want what women want&mdashacceptance of who they are, love, and positive reinforcement for what they do well and for what they are trying to contribute.


We asked 20 women: Would you date a guy who’s not as fit as you are?

So you’ve been working out at the gym for a while, and you can’t help but notice that there are some women around who are undeniably out-of-this-universe fit. And while you’re no slouch, you’re not quite on the same level that they are—maybe you don’t have the perfectly sculpted abs, or the *ahem* well-honed posterior chains.

Believe it or not, a lot of guys have asked us the same question in this scenario: If these ladies were single, would they even consider going out with a guy who’s not exactly on her fitness level? Or do gym goddesses demand an equally fit dude with mountain-sized shoulders and bulging biceps?

Most guys’ knee-jerk reaction is to think yes, of course she does. But when she’s looking for a partner—not just a one-night fling—do her standards and desires change?

We won’t bust the punchline. Read to see how 20 real women feel about dating a guy who’s in worse shape and maybe even “below their league,” who they’ve been with in the past, and the type of guy they’re looking for in the future.

1. “Give me a man who adores the crap out of me and I won’t think twice about whether his body fat ratio is better than mine.” – Lianne F.

2. “Absolutely. It feels like there’s less competition for ’em.” – Alyssa M.

3. “Probably not now, but maybe when I’m older.” – Riley G.

4. “It would definitely depend on how bad we’re talking. I’ve always been more attracted to a lean body type, but that doesn’t always mean they’re in the best shape. I go more off physical appearance than how fast he can run.” – Laura K.

5. “I wouldn’t date someone significantly more out of shape than me. I probably wouldn’t be attracted to that, as shallow as it sounds. But I don’t care if a guy works out as much or less than me.” – Jess Q.

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6. “I would, and I have. Personality (among other things) matters more than looks. But obviously it’s a plus if they’re in shape. Also, if they end up actually being committed to a long-term relationship, you can just work out together.” – Adrianna E.

7. “I don’t think I would date a person who didn’t want to be active. They don’t need a slammin’ body—but, you know, take care of yourself.” – Tara L.

8. “Yes, but I’d much rather not.” – Lauren M.

9. “Yes—dad bods all day. I don’t want him to be too much out of shape, though. I’m talking Leo DiCaprio dad bod.” – Brianne S.

10. “Yes, absolutely. I prefer men who aren’t vain. In fact, I actually like when they have some fluffy weight on them. I mean, after all, science does state heavier set men are the best lovers…” – Caitlin W.

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11. “Yes, because they’re usually less self-obsessed and know how to have a good time.” – Megan N.

12. “I’d say no, because I can’t even run a mile so the guy would have to be in pretty awful shape. I also think you can have a better relationship if you both head to the gym together and have the same mindset about excercise and eating right.” – Elizabeth F.

13. “I think it’s great if guys work out, but that’s not a top priority as long as they’re not fat.” – Heather F.

14. “Depends, but I typically prefer someone who has the same interests and motivation in staying in shape.” – Melissa C.

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15. “Truthfully, I’m really attracted to guys who put in gym time and have the body to prove it. But that doesn’t mean shredded abs and muscles coming out of his ears.” – Erica G.

16. “I’ve been with guys all across the spectrum: skinny guys, super-shredded guys, ones in between. Bottom line, I’m more concerned with the personality of the guy I’m dating, not how much he can bench.” – Traci B.

17. “If his biceps aren’t the size of my head and I can’t wash my clothes on his abs, whatever—that’s totally fine. If he’s unhealthy and lazy, absolutely not.” – Quinn E.

18. “Hell no. I need someone to push me, not discourage me.” – Dana Q.

19. “Probably not, but it depends. If he’s willing to get fit with me, then yes.” – Anna F.


We Asked 100 Women: Do you like guys who have ‘dad bods’?

By now, you’ve surely heard about the “dad bod”. Men’s midsections haven’t been the topic of so many conversations since…maybe ever. But how do women really feel about the fad? Do they want their men to have some pudge (lookin’ at you, Leo), or are they hell-bent on the cut, chiseled look? And how many women are divided in the middle—indifferent or content with whatever size their partner’s body may be?

We went to the source—100 women—to get to the bottom of this seemingly bottomless debate. Here’s the breakdown, and some of our favorite quotes:

“I only go after guys with dad bods.” – 15

“Maybe, but it’s not something I look for.” – 24

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While about 50% of women are indifferent, only 15% exclusively date men with a “dad bod”. And 38% of women want their guys in tip-top shape. So, continue checking MensFitness.com for tips, workouts, recipes—and more.

“If I get to know someone and begin liking them, part of that first attraction doesn’t usually involve what their stomach looks like. If the dad bod is hiding under that shirt, so be it. It makes it easier to not have a perfect female body, too, when your s/o has a dad bod.” -Sara H

“I mean, sure it looks good on Chris Pratt and Leonardo DiCaprio, but for now I’ll appreciate dad bods from afar.” – Marlene A.

“A dad bod is not something that would initially attract me to a guy, but it definitely wouldn’t deter me from him.” – Sam A.

We Asked 20 Women: What’s your least favorite sex .

Are you making these moves?

“I love a man with a little something extra to hold onto. If you’re smaller than I am, I tend to feel ‘big’ and that’s just no bueno. I don’t specifically seek out ‘dad bods,’ but I definitely don’t mind it. Plus, it makes the hugs extra squeezy!” -Kari C.

“I care more about personality than looks, and if you’re not super-buff, you probably have interests outside of working out/yourself.” – B.R.

“I like guys who can take care of themselves. Sexier if that means they’re fit, but it’s not about being physically perfect to be attractive.” – Hannah R.

“It is yet another reason for even more people to discard good nutrition and exercise habits. Also, women would never be applauded for ‘mom bods,’ why do men get the easy way out?” – Lea M.

We Asked 20 Women: How many sexual partners is too.

Curious whether she cares about the notches in your bedpost?

“Usually means they don’t take care of themselves or care about health and fitness, which I prioritize.” – Caroline D.

“If you’re lazy with a dad bod, no thank you. But if you have a dad bod and you’re into fitness/healthy lifestyle, then OK.” – Christina S.

“I really would rather have a guy be larger than me than be pre-pubescent looking. I think that would qualify as an occasional supporter of dad bods.” -Kristen S.

“I’m all about someone that wants to eat ice cream with me at 2 a.m. but still cares about physical appearance—mostly because I feel like I would have a dad bod if I were a guy.” – Katherine T.

“Give me a Greek god bod, or give me death.” – Caitlyn H.

“I don’t care if you aren’t into lifting or crushing whey protein shakes twice a day. To be honest, super-ripped guys are kind of intimidating. I guess I would say my ideal is somewhere between a beer belly and washboard abs.” – Danielle S.


9 Women reveal why they actually want to lose weight

Even if your New Year&rsquos resolution wasn’t to shed pounds, it seems that weight still dictates our body image and self-esteem. So, why are we trying to lose weight?

A new report out of Southern Methodist University indicates that a woman’s body image is linked to her perception of what she thinks men prefer. In other words, if women are told that men desire women with larger bodies, then they are more content with their weight.

“On average, heterosexual women believe that heterosexual men desire ultra-thin women,” said Andrea Meltzer, an assistant professor in the department of psychology at the university, in a statement. “Consequently, this study suggests that interventions that alter women’s perception regarding men’s desires for ideal female body sizes may be effective at improving women’s body image.”

Even if you’re not working towards a weight goal, you probably still have some sort of effort aimed at losing or maintaining your weight. So, we asked around to hear why women are actually trying to shed pounds. Their responses…

1. “I want to treat my PCOS”

One woman said her doctor wanted to put her on medication to treat the symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome, but she wanted to go the natural route and lose weight. She removed dairy from her diet, which is typically high in estrogen.

“I saw results within my next menstrual cycle. I’m now down almost 20 pounds in three months, and I’m so close to ovulating again,” she said.

“The hardest part has been having the patience to not take meds, surprisingly. It’s so tempting to just treat the symptoms rather than the cause,” she said. “I have to focus on the future: self-confidence when I fit my clothes better, getting pregnant and carrying a pregnancy to term, avoiding diabetes, having more energy, sleeping better and predictable periods that don’t surprise me and ruin those nice-fitting clothes!”

2. “I want to prevent diseases”

One woman said that extra weight means upping your risk for disease. “There&rsquos no way around that,” she said. “I have just been through a health scare, so I know that nothing tastes as good as being healthy. Everyone doesn&rsquot have to be skinny, but everyone should be fit.”

3. “I want to rock my career”

Thin may not be a job requirement, but one woman said it would help her stand out in the career arena.

“Being fit shows people that you have discipline. People are more likely to hire and trust someone who seems decisive and disciplined,” she said.

Another woman agreed that looking good was great for a gal’s career and her own body image.

“My perception of my body is directly related to my level of confidence,” she said. “To be fit, healthy and comfortable in my clothes boosts my self-esteem in a way that allows me to leave a lasting impression… a necessary trait in the PR industry.”

4. “I want my clothes to fit better”

Sometimes, the benefits of losing weight really are about looking good &mdash and feeling it. “I am trying to shed pounds because it’s so much easier to get dressed in the morning when I don’t have to try on 50 things to find one thing that looks good,” one woman said.

5. “It’s uncomfortable to wear [Spanx]”

Another woman who worked in the medical field said she typically wears scrubs. When I go out and wear a dress or a cute pair of fitted jeans, I don’t want to have to keep putting on Spanx or suck-me-in corsets just to have a nice look. It’s so uncomfortable to wear them and then try to eat, let alone trying to unbutton them when you have to go to the bathroom,” she admitted.

6. “I want to fit in standard seats”

One woman recalled her favorite uncle, who passed away in his 50s due to obesity. She said she wants to shed pounds because she doesn’t want to get too fat and wind up not being able to get help. “I want to live, to be able to go to Disney World and ride the rides, to sit in a chair at a concert and be comfortable,” she added.

7. “I want to feel vibrant and creative”

Many women experience weight fluctuations, but one woman told me her weight fluctuated from 110 pounds to 150 pounds after she had her first child. “What I’ve noticed is that my weight reflects how much emotional baggage I’m carrying,” she said. When at her ideal weight of about 118 to 122 pounds, she carries around “just enough emotional stuff to be a grounded, responsive person.” But when that number goes over 125, “I’m bogged down with regret, sorrow, guilt and anger,” she said.

8. “I want to quit smoking”

Looking to kick the habit? Start working out &mdash it may deter you from lighting up. “I’ve been trying to quit for a year and nothing helps. None of the tricks I’ve read about, not the gum, not the patches, have helped me. The only thing that has helped is working out,” a woman said. “If I have a cigarette, my workout that day or the next day is ruined, I just can’t keep up. I also don’t have the urge to smoke either. Instead of smoking, I do something active and it’s really been helping.”

9. “I want to get moving”

A blogger told me that she was gaining weight because of her sedentary lifestyle working at a desk. “I have four dogs that I write about and they’re an active pack and I couldn’t keep up with them,” she confessed. She started eating better and working out, and also drank more water and cut down on sugar &mdash that helped her shed about five pounds in less than two weeks.

“Now I can walk all four dogs for miles without breaking a sweat,” she said.


Results

Absolute Ratings of the Bodies With One’s Own Face

The MANOVA yielded a significant main effect of Build, Pillai’s trace = 0.98, F(20,176) = 381.40, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.98, a significant main effect of Group, Pillai’s trace = 0.65, F(5,191) = 69.89, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.65, and a significant interaction of Build × Group, Pillai’s trace = 0.84, F(20,176) = 44.86, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.84. In the following, the ANOVAs and post-hoc results for each rating variable are described. Means, standard errors, and post hoc t-test results of the rating variables are presented in Table 2.

Table 2. Means, standard errors, and post hoc t-test results for each rating variable dependent on the factors Group and Build.

Valence

The ANOVA for valence revealed a significant main effect of Build, F(3.13,610.61) = 131.77, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.40, a significant main effect of Group, F(1,195) = 19.36, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.09, and a significant interaction of Build × Group, F(3.13,610.61) = 76.58, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.28. Women experienced the most positive feelings when the average-weight body was presented, whereas men experienced the most positive feelings when the athletic body was presented. Both groups experienced the most negative feelings in the case of the overweight body. For the thin and hypermuscular bodies, women reported less positive feelings than did men.

Arousal

The ANOVA for arousal yielded a significant main effect of Build, F(3.34,650.45) = 9.40, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.05, and a significant interaction of Build × Group, F(3.34,650.45) = 2.65, p = 0.04, η p 2 = 0.01, but no significant main effect of Group, F(1,195) = 0.48, p = 0.488, η p 2 < 0.01. Across both groups, participants experienced less arousal for the average-weight body than for the other bodies. Furthermore, men experienced less arousal for the thin body than for the hypermuscular body.

Body Attractiveness

The ANOVA for body attractiveness revealed a significant main effect of Build, F(2.91,567.67) = 191.60, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.50, a significant main effect of Group, F(1,195) = 7.97, p = 0.005, η p 2 = 0.04, and a significant interaction of Build × Group, F(2.91,567.67) = 104.53, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.35. Women evaluated the average-weight body as most attractive, while men evaluated the athletic body as most attractive. Both groups rated the overweight body as most unattractive, which was significantly more pronounced in men than in women. For the thin and hypermuscular bodies, women rated lower body attractiveness than did men.

Body Fat

The ANOVA for body fat yielded a significant main effect of Build, F(3.38,659.07) = 1579.30, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.89, a significant main effect of Group, F(1,195) = 286.98, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.60, and a significant interaction of Build × Group, F(3.38,659.07) = 24.68, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.11. Across all body builds, men estimated more body fat than did women. Men estimated the most body fat for the overweight body, followed by the average-weight body, the athletic, hypermuscular and finally the thin body. Women rated the most body fat for the overweight body, followed by the average-weight body, the athletic body, and finally the hypermuscular and thin bodies, which did not differ significantly from each other.

Muscle Mass

The ANOVA for muscle mass yielded a significant main effect of Build, F(3.06,596.88) = 1524.57, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.89, and a significant interaction of Build × Group, F(3.06,596.88) = 36.80, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.16, but no significant main effect of Group, F(1,195) = 3.64, p = 0.058, η p 2 = 0.02. Women and men estimated the most muscle mass for the hypermuscular body, followed by the athletic body, the average-weight body and finally the thin and overweight bodies. Women rated less muscle mass than men for the thin and overweight bodies, while men estimated less muscle mass than women for the average-weight and athletic bodies. Ratings did not differ significantly for the hypermuscular body.

Double Standards

The MANOVA yielded a significant main effect of Build, Pillai’s trace = 0.51, F(20,176) = 9.18, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.51, and a significant interaction of Build × Group, Pillai’s trace = 0.33, F(20,176) = 4.25, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.33, but no significant main effect of Group, Pillai’s trace = 0.02, F(5,191) = 0.66, p = 0.656, η p 2 = 0.02. In the following, we report which DS scores were significant by describing the differences in body ratings depending on the faces. Furthermore, the ANOVAs and post-hoc results examining the influence of Group and Build on the DS scores are described for each DS score category. Means, standard errors, confidence intervals of the DS scores, and post hoc t-test results of the DS scores are presented in Table 3. Furthermore, Figure 2 illustrates the means, standard errors and group differences.

Table 3. Means, standard errors, confidence intervals of the means, and post hoc t-test results for the DS scores s for each rating variable dependent on the factors Group and Build.

Figure 2. Means and standard errors (error bars) for the double standard scores (DS scores) for valence, arousal, body attractiveness, body fat and muscle mass dependent on the factors Group and Build. Asterisks highlight significant Bonferroni-corrected group differences.

Double Standard Score in Valence

Women experienced more negative feelings when their own face was presented compared to the other person’s face in the case of the overweight, athletic and hypermuscular bodies. For men, more negative feelings emerged for one’s own face compared to the other person’s face in the case of the thin, average-weight, and overweight bodies. However, for the athletic body, men experienced more positive feelings when their own face was presented compared to the other person’s face. The ANOVA for the DS score in valence revealed a significant main effect of Build, F(3.59,700.03) = 20.27, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.09, and a significant interaction of Build × Group, F(3.59,700.03) = 11.47, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.06. Across both groups, the overweight body revealed more negative DS scores than all other body builds. Men showed significantly more negative DS scores than women in the case of the thin and average-weight bodies and a significantly more positive DS score than women for the athletic body.

Double Standard Score in Arousal

For all body builds, both groups experienced more arousal when one’s own face was presented compared to the other person’s face. The ANOVA for the DS score in arousal yielded a significant main effect of Build, F(3.64,710.53) = 10.32, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.05, but no significant interaction of Build × Group, F(3.64,710.53) = 2.09, p = 0.088, η p 2 = 0.01. Across both groups, the DS score for arousal was more pronounced for the overweight body than for all other body builds.

Double Standard Score in Body Attractiveness

Women evaluated a body as less attractive when their own face was presented compared to the other person’s face in the case of the overweight and athletic bodies. For men, a lower rating of attractiveness emerged for one’s own face compared to the other person’s face in the case of the average-weight, overweight, and hypermuscular bodies. However, men rated the athletic body as more attractive when their own face was presented compared to the other person’s face. The ANOVA for the DS score in body attractiveness revealed a significant main effect of Build, F(3.61,703.18) = 9.49, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.05, and a significant interaction of Build × Group, F(3.61,703.18) = 5.82, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.03. Across both groups, the overweight body resulted in more pronounced DS scores than all other body builds. Men showed a significantly more negative DS score than women for the average-weight body and a significantly more positive DS score than women for the athletic body.

Double Standard Score in Body Fat

Women and men estimated more body fat for the overweight body and less body fat for the thin body when their own face was presented compared to the other person’s face. Furthermore, men estimated more body fat for the average-weight body when their own face was presented compared to the other person’s face. The ANOVA for the DS score in body fat yielded a significant main effect of Build, F(3.84,747.42) = 21.84, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.10, and a significant interaction of Build × Group, F(3.84,747.42) = 2.82, p = 0.026, η p 2 = 0.01. Across both groups, the average-weight and overweight bodies yielded more pronounced DS scores than the thin, athletic and hypermuscular bodies. Men showed a significantly more pronounced DS score than women in the case of the average-weight body.

Double Standard Score in Muscle Mass

Women estimated less muscle mass for the overweight body when their own face was presented compared to the other person’s face. For men, a lower rating of muscle mass for one’s own face compared to the other person’s face was found in the case of the thin and overweight bodies. However, men estimated more muscle mass for the athletic and hypermuscular bodies when their own face was presented compared to the other person’s face. The ANOVA for the DS score in muscle mass yielded a significant main effect of Build, F(3.74,729.95) = 14.94, p < 0.001, η p 2 = 0.07, but just failed to reach a significant interaction of Build × Group, F(3.74,729.95) = 2.34, p = 0.058, η p 2 = 0.01. Across both groups, the DS scores for the athletic and hypermuscular bodies differed significantly from the DS scores for the thin, average-weight and overweight bodies.

Correlations of Body Dissatisfaction and Double Standards

The higher the body dissatisfaction score of women, the less self-serving were the double standards in valence for the overweight body (rs = -0.235, p = 0.016) and the double standards in body attractiveness for the average-weight body (rs = -0.194, p = 0.048). Further correlations for women and for men were not significant, all p > 0.057.


HSES 260 Exam 3

Digests, absorb, transport nutrients regulates body temperature carries waste out of the body lubricates body.

Builds and maintains muscles, bones, and other body tissues.

RDA: 20 - 35% of calories. Only 1/3 should be saturated.

Catalysts for releasing energy from carbs, proteins, and fats while maintaining other body components.

Your body needs at least 11 specific, including A, C, D, E, K, and B-Complex.

Two kinds: water and fat soluble.

Build strong bones and teeth help carry out metabolic processes and body functions.

Two types: macro and micro.

Protective against colon cancer.

Sources:
Beef, pork, poultry, whole-milk dairy products, certain topics oils (coconut and palm), certain nuts (macadamia).

Saturated Fat: primarily animal-based fat (limit to 1/3 of total intake).

Monounsaturated & Polyunsaturated fat: found primarily in plant, nut & fish sources - tend to improve cholesterol ratios.

Trans fat: hydrogenated fat often added to processed foods that is bad for cholesterol ratio.

May offer protection against obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, digestive disorders, and some forms of cancer.

-Even short-term exercise sometimes shows significantly improved mental functioning.

-The improved psychological feelings (less depression, improved mood) are likely influenced by better self-esteem, better sleep, more social interaction (self-efficacy?).

-Because many forms of exercise (walking, hiking, biking. ) involve you being outside, you tend to connect more with nature and the world around you when you exercise.

Frequency: ideally 3+ times per week.

Intensity: reaching the target heart rate (THR) zone %%.

Time: 15-60 minutes 30 minutes is a good minimum to shoot for.

In 2007.
Only Colorado had a rate below 20%.

Stress Response - Our bodies release adrenaline and cortisol, and fat cells release fatty acids and triglycerides in response. ON TEST

Most people with this don't have a lack of appetite and are more likely to be obsessed with food.

They starve themselves to appear ultra thin or emaciated.

This has the highest death of any psychiatric disorder at 10%.

Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight.

Disturbance in the way in which one's body weight or shape is experienced, undue influence of body weight on self-evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of low body weight.

Purging can consist of self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, diuretics, enemas, or other medications.

People with bulimia also have a distorted body image.

Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain (purging behaviors).
-Self-induced vomiting.
-Misuse of laxatives, diuretics, enemas, or other medications fasting or excessive exercise.

Shares features with other eating disorders and is considered an area that needs more research.

Marked distress about binge eating.

Preoccupation causes significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (they normally withdraw from social activities to avoid anyone seeing their "huge flaw!").

People continue to exercise strenuously even when the activity causes illness, injury, or the breakdown of relationships.

Used to gain a sense of control and accomplishment, to maintain self-esteem, and to soothe emotions rather than to increase fitness, relaxation, or pleasure.

Not about exercise for health but about meeting psychological needs.

Decreased heart muscle mass.

Loss of calcium, osteoporosis, increased risk of fractures.

More prevalent when food is abundant and has taken on symbolic meanings such as comfort, love, belonging, fun, and control.

-Disordered eating patterns (often accompanied by excessive exercising).

-Amenorrhea (cessation of menstruation).

Women care about weight more than shape.

Belief in the thin ideal and body dissatisfaction can lead to increased risk for disordered eating disorders like:
-Calorie restriction - a reduction in calorie intake below daily needs.
-Purging - using self-induced vomiting, laxatives, or diuretics to get rid of calories that have been
consumed.

Does culture play a role in body image?
-Historically, white women have been known to experience greater body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance than women in other groups.
-Historically, ethnic women have been believed to have less pressure to be thin.

Some men may develop muscle dysmorphia or "bigorexia" - a disorder in which one perceives his body to be underdeveloped no matter how highly developed his muscles are.

About 10% of eating disorders are now diagnosed in men.

Eating disorders among men may have long been under-diagnosed because these disorders have been considered a female problem.

White, black, Asian, and Hispanic women currently report similar concerns.

Black men report more positive body image than whites.

Native American men report slightly greater body image concerns than white men
.
Among Asian men, there are inconsistent findings, perhaps because of the array of cultural groups.

Sports may provide protection against eating disorders by promoting performance rather than appearance.

Sports may also carry pressure, both from oneself and from coaches, teammates, and parents.

High-level athletes often succeed because of their high expectations, accompanied by varying degrees of perfection and compulsiveness.

Athletes are often influenced by coaches in comments that are made regarding weight loss and performance.

The risk for eating disorders appears highest among elite level athletes, like college or higher.
Some sports (distance running, diving, gymnastics, wrestling) place extra pressure on "leanness."


Most Helpful Guy

I find that chubby girls are extremely sexy. The sexiest women are curvy women with nice C cup or D cup breasts with a little chub. It just so sexy. My arms, chest, abs plowing deep inside her as her sexual prize. She has a nice round butt to clutch while I am driving deep inside her. Great view of boobs. A lot of women dont realize this but when a woman is on her back her stomach flattens because there is less gravity pulling it down. So a chubby woman actually looks big breasted and skinny. As long as she is not obese or fat it can be sexy driving into a woman who is chubby. Making a heavier woman go weak at the knees and moaning beneath you. Its just sexy.

Don't you notice you see a lot of muscle black men in relationships with chubby and curvy white women? Yep.


When Men Stop Seeking Beauty and Women Care Less About Wealth

Men seek youth and beauty, while women focus on wealth and status — evolutionary psychologists have long claimed that these general preferences in human mating are universal and based on biology. But new research suggests that they may in fact be malleable: as men and women achieve financial equality, in terms of earning power and economic freedom, these mate-seeking preferences by gender tend to wane.

The idea behind the evolutionary theory is simple: biologically, sperm are cheap — men make 1,500 sperm per second on average. In contrast, eggs are expensive typically, women release just one egg a month and each baby girl is born with her full lifetime’s supply of egg cells. (Yes, this means that the egg from which you sprang was formed inside your maternal grandmother.) What’s more, pregnancy costs a woman nine months, while the initial male contribution to parenthood generally requires no more than a few minutes.

As a result, evolutionary theorists argue, women will be far more selective than men about their sexual partners, and they will tend to seek those with the most resources to invest in their children. Men, on the other hand, can afford to be less choosy. They’ll care far less about a woman’s ability to provide and far more about her basic signs of fertility, such as her youth and the symmetry of her facial features — a characteristic associated with beauty and good health.

But while these mate-seeking preferences may have made sense when humans first evolved — and subsequently shaped our unconscious desires — the world has changed since our species dwelled in caves. And so, researchers at the University of York in the U.K. wanted to know whether factors that characterize modern-day society, such as women’s increased earning power and status, made a difference.

In a study published in Psychological Science, researchers looked at two large samples of people who were surveyed about the qualities they most wanted in a mate: one survey was conducted in the late 1980s and included 8,953 people from 37 different cultures the second survey was more current, administered to 3,177 people from 10 nations via the Internet.

Noting prior research finding that women who expect to be employed full-time on their own put less emphasis on a man’s “provider” qualities, the authors write: “As the positioning of men and women in societal roles changes, gender differences in mate choice criteria should change because people look for mates who fit into their anticipated future lives under prevalent societal circumstances.”

To figure out if that’s true, the researchers ranked nations according to a new measure of gender equity introduced by the World Economic Forum in 2006. Within various societies, they looked for relationships between the gender gap and how much of a difference there was between male and female mate preferences. And indeed, the researchers found, the greater the equality of power between the genders, the more similar were the traits that both men and women sought in potential mates. In Finland, the country with the greatest gender parity among the 10 countries included in the more current of the two surveys, there was a far smaller difference between male and female preferences than in Turkey, which had the biggest gender gap.

That means, basically, that the more equal men and women became, the less emphasis men placed on youth and beauty, and the less emphasis women put on wealth and power. These findings were borne out by the 37-culture survey as well although it showed a definite gender difference in mate-seeking preferences, it also showed that these gender-based differences narrowed in countries with more equality. Further, it found that the top few most desired traits were shared by both men and women: most people first look for intelligence, kindness and sense of humor, even before men mention beauty or women mention wealth and status.

Other supposedly biologically based gender-based differences — such as gaps in math performance between men and women — have also been found to recede in gender-equal societies, suggesting that the role of culture in these variations has been underestimated.

In case you’re wondering, America ranks 17th in the world in gender equity. The top four most gender-equal nations are all in Scandinavia, and the bottom of the ranking is dominated by Middle Eastern and African countries.

However, the authors note that even the most egalitarian countries in the world are equally as far from perfect equality as they are from the level of inequality seen in the countries that score worst on this measure. The authors conclude: “As long as gender inequality prevails even in ‘egalitarian’ nations, an erosion of gender differentiation in mating preferences cannot be expected.”


Why Do Women Outnumber Men in College?

It is fairly well known that women today outnumber men in American colleges. In 2003, there were 1.35 females for every male who graduated from a four-year college and 1.3 females for every male undergraduate. That contrasts with 1960, when there were 1.6 males for every female graduating from a U.S. four-year college and 1.55 males for every female undergraduate. How come this switch?

In The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap (NBER Working Paper No. 12139), authors Claudia Goldin, Lawrence Katz, and Ilyana Kuziemko offer some explanations for the change. In the post-World War II era, they note, the financial return to women of higher education greatly increased. At first, from the late 1950s to the early 1970s, women tended to pursue female-intensive occupations such as teaching and social work after graduation. So, they majored in education, English, and literature, perhaps, and they often aimed at finding suitable mates in college.

Indeed, these female college graduates had a high fertility rate after marriage, being the mothers of the Baby Boom generation. In 1960, the labor force participation of female college graduates in their twenties and thirties was low: only 39 percent of 30-to-34-year olds were employed and 47 percent of those employed were teachers 73 percent had children at home. A decade later, only 49 percent of the 1970 graduates were employed at ages 30 to 34, and 55 percent of those with jobs were teachers.

But beginning in the late 1960s and early 1970s, young women's expectations of their future labor force participation changed radically. Rather than follow in their mothers' footsteps, they aimed to have careers, not just jobs. These careers were often outside of the traditionally female occupations for women. In high school, they took more science and math courses. As a result, their twelfth grade math and reading test scores increased relative to those of boys. For the college graduates of 1980, when they reached 30-to-34 years of age, 70 percent were employed, only 36 percent of those employed were teachers, and 60 percent had children at home. The authors figure that about 30 to 60 percent of the increase in the female-to-male ratios of college graduates from the 1970s to the 1990s can be explained by these changes.

Another relevant factor in the gender shift, the age of female college graduates' first marriage, increased by about 2.5 years in the 1970s. Whereas from the 1950s to the early 1970s women had tended to marry a little more than a year after graduation, by 1981 the median age of marriage for college-educated women was 25. This delay allowed many women to be more serious students and less concerned about securing a husband while pursuing an undergraduate degree.

Adding to the possibility of a greater investment in professional careers was the availability of the contraceptive "pill." Women could better plan their futures. With a resurgence of feminism, young women also felt more empowered. They had greater guarantees by the government that job discrimination by employers against women would not be tolerated. They anticipated a more even playing field with respect to men in terms of access to high-paying careers for college graduates and to professional and graduate college programs, the authors note. Since 1980, the wage premium for a college degree has risen, especially for women. Over a lifetime, many women have taken time out from work to look after their children full time. But more recently, their participation in the labor force has begun to resemble that of men. "The jury is still out concerning whether the full lifetime economic returns to college are greater for women than for men," the authors write.

One sign of rising expectations by women is shown in the fact that women earned 45.1 percent of bachelor's degrees in business in 1984-5 and 50 percent by 2001-2, up from only 9.1 percent in 1970-1. Similar large increases in the female share of BAs also have occurred in the life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering since the early 1970s. It also could be that the rise in divorce rates since the 1960s and women's greater responsibility for children have prompted women to see an investment in college as an insurance policy for their future financial lives.

Another aspect in the reversal of the college gender gap, rather than just its elimination, is the persistence of behavioral and developmental differences between males and females. Boys often mature more slowly than girls. In grades K-12, boys tend to have a higher incidence of behavioral problems (or lower level of non-cognitive skills) than girls. Girls spend more time doing homework than boys. These behavioral factors, after adjusting for family background, test scores, and high school achievement, can explain virtually the entire female advantage in getting into college for the high school graduating class of 1992, the authors figure. It allowed "girls to leapfrog over boys in the race to college." Similarly, teenage boys, both in the early 1980s and late 1990s, had a higher (self-reported) incidence of arrests and school suspensions than teenage girls.

The "homecoming" in the authors' title to their paper refers to the fact that by 1980 the gender balance in college had returned to its pre-1930 level in the United States, although the levels of college attendance were almost six times higher in 1980 than in the 1920s for both men and women. The number of male-to-female undergraduates was about at parity from 1900 to 1930. Many females were attending teacher-training colleges in those days. The highpoint of gender imbalance in college attendance was reached in 1947, after the return of men from World War II then eligible for educational subsidies through the GI bills, when undergraduate men outnumbered women 2.3 to 1. Women's relative numbers in college have increased ever since the 1950s, with a pause when many men went to college to avoid serving in the Vietnam War. The decline in the male-to-female ratios of undergraduates in the past 35 years is real, and not primarily due to changes in the ethnic mix of the college-aged population or to the types of post-secondary institutions they attend, the authors assert. The female share of college students has expanded in all 17 member-nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in recent decades, so much so that women now outnumber men in college in almost all rich nations.